Life is dear and precious . And whoever stole it is necessarily a criminal, whatever the unjust and hidden reasons.Terrorism is one of the diseases of the era that hit the Arabs countries and global body at the core,And destroyed not only the human fabric among nations, but also within humanity so violently that caution and suspicion became the only communication currency Human life is worthless because of repeated terrorist operations , which is happening today is very dangerous and almost a real madness.Of course, in normal situations, it is difficult to imagine a human being, in which the remnants of human genes put a deadly bomb for tens, even hundreds, sometimes thousands of people. Of course,Human sometimes remains subject to a romantic vision that does not allow him to penetrate deeply into the potential of human depths.Although wars have shown us how much of a monsters sleeps under the human envelope, from the depths of the accumulation of human brutality What the medieval Inquisition did in the Middle Ages clearly illustrates this, and what the First and Second World Wars did in human beings is difficult to imagine.The current wars are no exception. The ISIS practices are characterized by the filming of killing, burning, and decapitation, and the practices of unjust dictatorships, which are characterized by the killing of their people, Which shows beyond any doubt that there is no limit to the internal human rudeness, and no limit to his discoveries in torture, humiliation and murder, what is terrorism and its history, what are its motives and objectives, and whether the world agreed to define what is?
Definition of terrorism:
Terrorism is a means of coercion and violence in the international community. Terrorism has no universally agreed and legally binding objectives, the definition of criminal law as well as common definitions of terrorism that refer to those violent acts aimed at creating an atmosphere of fear directed against religious and political followers or ideological targets, Or ignore the safety of non-civilians. Some definitions now include acts of unlawful violence and war. Similar tactics are often used by criminal organizations to impose their laws and because of the political and religious complexities, the concept of this term has become sometimes obscure and different. It is noteworthy that the Christians have suffered because of the targeting of extremist groups to them and also Islam at the present time has received a share of this phrase for political reasons governed by international and regional conflicts and terrorism is a problematic phenomenon; there is no definition agreed upon by one of his students and those interested in it. Its definitions vary from time to time and from one side to another.It is useful to note here the famous study in the literature of terrorism by researchers from the University of Leiden (Alex Smith and Albert Youngman), through which they collected 109 definitions of official and academic terrorism, all of which are different, but distinct in this study , “The enormous amount of monitoring the definitions of terrorism, and the analysis of these definitions to the elements of the initial, and what criteria that have the greatest consensus among academic researchers and official bodies?
. The “violence” component is found in 83.5% of the total of these definitions.1
. The political objectives component is present in 65% of the definitions.2
– element of the broadcast of terror and fear exists in (51%) of the definitions.3
4.The targeting element, and the distinction between the objectives of the terrorist act are present in (21%) of the definitions.
. Civilian casualty and non-combatant elements are present in only 17.5% of the total tariff of 109 definitions.5
. All official definitions are almost identical.6
The most important elements of the above study are: The element of violence and the element of political objectives are of great importance. We will present here selected examples of some of the most important definitions of official terrorism that represent various security institutions, the definition of the United Nations and some countries,
|Definition text||Source of Definition||The Sequence|
|Any act aimed at causing death or injury to civilians or non-combatants in order to intimidate citizens or to compel a Government or an international organization to do or refrain from any action||United Nations (2004)||1|
|Politically motivated violence, which is aimed specifically at non-military targets (not involving combatants by sub-national groups or secret agents, is usually aimed at influencing the popular masses||United States Department of State||2|
|The unlawful intentional use of violence to instill fear, with the aim of forcing or threatening governments or societies, to implement commonly religious or ideological objectives||US Department of Defense||3|
|Illegal use of violence and force against persons and property, to compel the Government or civilian citizens, or any part thereof, or threaten them, for political or social ends||Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)-2007-||4|
|Terrorism is the use of violence for political ends and includes any use of violence with the aim of placing citizens (or the public) or any part of them in fear.||Britain (legal definition) 1974||5|
|Every act of violence or threat thereof, whatever its motive or purpose, is carried out in the implementation of an individual or collective criminal enterprise, which aims to terrorize people and intimidate them by harming them or endangering their lives, freedom or security, or harming the environment or public or private facilities or property , Possess or seize, or endanger a national resource.||Arab Convention 1998 (signed by Arab Ministers of Interior)||6|
|Terrorism is deliberate political violence committed against non-combatant targets and the mediation of sub-national groups or secret agents, usually aimed at influencing citizens||Brian Burgin, University of Amsterdam, 2006.||7|
|Terrorism is the threat or apparent use of indiscriminate violence against innocent people for political purposes through non-state actors||Definition of the expert of terrorism (Audrey Kurth Cronin) Library of Congress 2003||8|
|Terrorism is a method of political action that uses violence (or deliberately terror) against civilians and civilian infrastructure to influence behavior, punish, or take revenge||Definition of Ken Booth and Tim Dion 2005||9|
|Terrorism is the deliberate or threatened use of violence, mediated by individuals or semi-national groups, to obtain political or social ends by threatening a wide range of citizens beyond the immediate victims||Definition of b. Peter Rosendorf and Todd Sandler, 2005 University of Southern California.||10|
Through the previous definitions, we find the convergence of the concept of terrorism linguistically with the concept of intimidation associated with violence and has created a space that gave ample opportunity to describe all that is frightening terrorism,Even if it is lawful to resist the occupation or legitimate revolutions against the despotic dictatorships that fall under the concept of self-defense. And make this convergence and interpretation in this area wide, and left the door open to exploit the term and subject to the tendencies and desires of people, groups and countries,This is why we find that the choice of the West for this broad term and its imposition on the world in order to describe the most dangerous phenomena in the twentieth century, according to deliberate admixture , reflects a deep crisis of values and principles that suffer from this presumed civilization, It is in terms of the linguistic concept of something, and in terms of the context and the Western and global deal with him something else interferes with the former sometimes and contradict with him repeatedly.
Types of terrorism:
. Practical terrorism.2
. Individual terrorism: It is carried out by individuals for various reasons.5
. Unorganized mass terrorism: terrorism perpetrated by unorganized groups of people for special purposes.6
7.Organized collective terrorism: represented by terrorist groups run and supervised by non-visible States, institutions or various bodies.
8.International terrorism: terrorism by one or more States. It is either unilateral international terrorism perpetrated by one State, bilateral terrorism perpetrated by two States or collective terrorism committed by a group of States or by one State, but with the support of States or a coalition of other States.
Causes of Terrorism:
1-Educational and cultural reasons: Education are the basis for the innate composition in humans. Any deviation or inadequacy in education is the first spark from which the deviation of the path of man originates, and the misinterpretation of religion leads to the creation of an image of complex ignorance and makes the individual vulnerable to intellectual deviation and extremism in behavior, fertile soil to sow the seeds of evil, Intellectual poisons of malicious, to achieve terrorist targets. The burden of this responsibility on the institutions that take the education of individuals and education in aspects of public education, or special education such as religious education, whether those institutions are directly responsible – institutions of public and university education – or indirect responsibility as the media of all kinds.
2-Social causes: Society is the incubator in which man grows, and grows his sense and moral sense, it is the climate in which the factors of material and moral balance in human. And any imbalance in those factors, it leads to imbalance in the human thinking and approach to deal with, the human being sees his society that the justice and human dignity, and when he does not find it as he is trying to express his rejection of that situation in the way that is believed to convey his message. The spread of social problems and the suffering of citizens motivated to deviate their behavior, and radicalize their opinions and filled them in their ideas, and even makes the community fertile ground for the growth of phenomena beyond the norms of human nature common in that community
3-Economic causes: The economy is one of the main factors in creating psychological stability in the human being. The more the individual’s income meets his requirements and the requirements of his family, the more his satisfaction and social stability are stable. The more the individual’s income is a little less than the needs and needs of his family, Dissatisfaction with hatred leads to a curse on society, especially if it sees disparity between it and other members of society with no good reasons for these differences, in addition to the low standard of living, housing, education, health, and other necessary services that the individual sees as the cause of the occurrence. State failure to provide them Because of the corruption of administrative corruption, and unfairness among members of society.
This state of frustration and negative feelings toward society generates a state of abandonment of national belonging, and the rejection of the sense of national responsibility, and therefore has a sense of revenge
4 – political reasons: clarity of the political approach and stability, and work according to specific criteria and frameworks creates confidence, and there is conviction, and builds the rules of mental and moral stability of the citizen, and vice versa, the ambiguity in the curriculum and confusion in the work, and instability in the process undermines confidence, And create a state of clash between citizens and political leadership, and consists of various loyalties, and groups and parties, tickling the feelings of citizens on the pretext of achieving the desired political goals, and the desired political stability and a strong international standing.
Psychological and personal reasons 5-
The motivations of human behavior vary. Some are paid for good and others are paid for Evil, so there are people who have criminal motives that make them prefer to commit crimes in general and terrorist crimes in particular, and may even be thirsty for them. Violence in their behavior with others, but with their closest relatives in their families, as a result of psychological factors inherent in them, sometimes leads them to be stripped of compassion, and even humanity, and create individuals who are fond of committing such acts of terrorism. These psychological reasons may be due to congenital or defects or characteristics, or a defect in their mental, or emotional composition, acquired or inherited
It is the most dangerous types of terrorism. It is a plague of consciousness, thought, memory, and dream. The bloody terrorism practiced every day is a physical assault, the destruction of the environment and the severing of the relationship with the earth, history and memory. It can be said that this type of intellectual terrorism is a disregard for our minds. The scenes of murder, assassination, extermination, bombing, vandalism, destruction, arrest, humiliation and injustice lead to a state of fear, panic, anxiety, insecurity and self-stability. Intellectual terrorism exists in all societies in varying degrees. It is a global phenomenon, but it is spread in closed societies with a culture of rhetoric and inclusiveness. It is manifested in the exercise of pressure, violence or persecution against dissenting individuals or groups with the support of political organizations or religious organizations that incite and incite them. The aim is to silence people and silence them so that these organizations Spreading its ideas without any opposition from the other currents, and Woe to anyone who begs himself to go out of line.
Terrorism in International Law
International law condemns terrorism by political or individual regimes and calls upon States to refrain from supporting or assisting terrorist activities. It calls for combating these acts by all means and defines penalties in the case of their practice, whether committed by individuals, political organizations or States. International law The Convention on the Prevention of Genocide, the Tokyo and Montreal Agreements on the Denunciation of Illegal Acts on Board Aircraft and the Agreement on the Denunciation of the Abduction of Diplomats,The Convention on the Prevention of Torture, the Convention on the Denunciation of Maritime Piracy, the Agreement on Internationally Protected Persons … etc., in addition to numerous statements by international bodies or resolutions on the subject. This affirms that international law included in its provisions individual terrorism and State terrorism That the State should prohibit the practice of terrorism or the violation of international humanitarian law (in particular the Fourth Geneva Convention of 1949) under any pretext and in response to any cause or incentive of any kind, but because of the absence of a uniform definition Of terrorism By the international community, there have been many individual attempts by states and jurists to define it. There are many definitions and countries differ in their position on the concept of terrorism,As we have seen previously Terrorism has been defined as “any act of organized violence aimed at creating a state of despair or fear with a view to undermining citizens’ trust in their government or representatives, or with the intention of destroying the structure of an existing regime or of strengthening or strengthening the authority of an existing Government”. It has also been defined as “any organized act in which violence (criminal act) or the threat of violence is used to create an atmosphere of fear for the purpose of repression, coercion or for the purpose of achieving political objectives.”
And international terrorism that all acts of organized violence or threats by individuals, groups, governments or states to create a state of fear, panic or despair with a view to achieving general political, social or economic objectives are terrorist acts of repression, expansion, occupation, exploitation and domination. The forms of colonialism, the systems of racial discrimination and foreign hegemony, and the terrorist acts of peoples and movements of national liberation for self-determination, liberation and independence
You must think aloud or you will never solve a phenomenon that has penetrated into the human fabric until it is threatened by decay and death in the Arab countries and the world body. This clearly shows that there is no place that is immune to terrorism if it becomes an intercontinental and vortex of death in this world.Because terrorism, which has been careless it and settled in the territory of war and misery, as long as it happens, in the forgotten corners and allows the dictatorships to continue more under the pretext of fighting terrorism. Today he beats all the doors of Europe and America to remind him only that he is penetrating the border, and no power, however, can stand in his complex ways in traditional ways.It has been developed from the means of killing, so that it is difficult to follow it except by a fundamental change in the strategies of the war against terrorism. It is clear today that terrorism has moved to individual choices and that humanity is facing a cruel and dangerous terrorist machine that must be condemned without hesitation. The world must reconsider equally the classification of terrorism and terrorist crimes.